网站导航免费论文 原创论文 论文搜索 定作论文 网学软件 学术大家 资料中心 会员中心 问题解答 定作论文 论文素材 设计下载 最新论文 下载排行 论文上传 在线投稿 联系我们
返回网学首页
最新论文 推荐专题 热门论文 素材专题
当前位置: 网学 > 设计资源 > 可用论文 > 正文
Talk is a basic communicative activity in daily life
来源:Http://myeducs.cn 联系QQ:点击这里给我发消息 作者: 佚名 来源: 网络 发布时间: 12/04/28
 

Talk is a basic communicative activity in daily life. The bulk of work on analyzing language in use has been carried out by many sociologists and anthropologists in the past few decades, and their studies have largely focused on how people structure their talk and make them meaningful. In 1960s, Harvey Sacks and Emanuel Schegloff established the theory of conversation analysis (CA in short) from sociological perspective. This theory studies “the order/organization/orderliness of social action, particularly those social actions that are located in everyday interaction, in discursive practices, in the sayings/tellings/doings of members of society” (Psathas, 1995:2). With the years of development, CA has concentrated on both daily discourse and institutional conversation. At present the hottest studies about CA in the world are from two aspects: doctor-patient interaction involving with the related areas of sociology, medicine and linguistics; and phone conversation with sociological approach, methodological approach and inter-cultural approach. For the doctor-patient interaction, the research contents include: 1. the whole structure of medical cases; 2. sequence and structure helping achieve activities and tasks in the process of medical services; 3. the design of turns that form above sequence and structure by participants. For the study of phone calls, the research aims to discover the social orders behind the talks on the phone.

Talk show has developed swift in recent years. It is by nature a type of conversation that can be chosen as good materials for the research of CA by the method of transcription from video recordings. In abroad, the previous studies on talk show have mostly been from the linguistic and socio-cultural angles. The researchers have often selected some famous talk show programs as the studying objects, such as Oprah Winfrey Show, The Tonight Show, The Daily Show, etc. In terms of linguistic studies, Cornelia Ilie is the acknowledged representative. She (2001:209) selects excerpts taken from two American talk shows as the objects, including Oprah Winfrey Show and Geraldo Rivera Show, and compares talk show conversation with institutional discourse and casual talk by describing the discursive and linguistic features of talk show separately. At last, she points out that one of the distinctive features of talk show conversation is as semi-institutional. Because talk show is a kind of face-to-face conversation that happens in institutional setting where topics are fixed and the roles of the participants are predetermined, but to a certain extent, some characteristics of talk show resemble to the naturally occurring everyday discourse, like interruption and repetition that happen in the show. Therefore talk show is regarded as the combination of these two kinds of talks. Drew & Heritage (1992) study the power distribution in talk shows and make a conclusion that the powers are asymmetrically distributed among the show host, guests and the audience. The power hierarchy in the talk show is displayed like that the host is at the top, the guests in the middle and the audience sharing the least power. The works of sociologists have probed into the social functions of talk show which provides both information and entertainment for audience, and to some extent, could lead public opinions. In China, the researches of talk show have emerged later than those of western countries. The investigations have mainly been conducted from the perspectives of mass media and linguistics. The characteristics of hosts, the organizations of the programs and the comparisons between different talk shows have attracted many domestic researchers to study on. Sun (2003), from the perspective of discourse analysis, examines in great details of some extracted dialogues from talk shows and claims that talk show provides good source of conversational data for English learners to improve their oral communicative competence as well as good teaching materials for teachers. Ying (2008) proposes his ideas in terms of the speech roles, the discourse features and innovations of the hosts in the programs.

But less research about talk show from the perspective of CA has been done. Drew & Heritage (1992) have ever made a relevant research. They regard talk show as an institutional discourse and describe the structural organization of the messages produced. Finally they draw a conclusion that the talk show is the intermediate between the formal institutional talk and ordinary conversation. Without a doubt, the creation of CA provides a new analytic method for the study of talk show. This thesis will employ it to study the sequential organization and strategies used in Oprah Winfrey Show.

The selection of conversation analysis of talk show as the subject for the research in this thesis is motivated by the following reasons. First, throughout the conversations, people’s talks are guided unconsciously by an underlying mechanism which is not realized but does exist. People need this kind of guidance to direct their conversations. CA is such a mechanism to study the orders of social actions, particularly those that are located in everyday interaction. Second, just as what mentioned above, talk show as a particular program format has the mixed features of both casual talk and institutional discourse. Because of this, it has been selected as the research object of CA. Third, talk show becomes more and more popular in recent years, among them Oprah Winfrey Show is known as the hottest all over the world. It has captivated audiences of different ages for several decades. The success of Oprah show is composed of comprehensive factors, among which Oprah’s distinctive capability and skills to rein the language are the important aspects. Through the study of this topic, the author will summarize the characteristics of Oprah show conversation and some pragmatic strategies used in the show so as to provide some inductive materials for future research.

The research questions of this thesis are from two aspects: what is the sequential organization like in Oprah Winfrey Show? What are those strategies Oprah uses in her program to control the talk?

The analyses of the transcribed data from Oprah show in this thesis will contribute to the improvement of the study of CA; while under the instruction of CA, the program of talk show will be better organized and appreciated. The two support each other. Through the conversation analysis of Oprah Winfrey Show in this thesis, it aims to achieve following research objectives:

1.      To study the sequential organization of talk show conversation and reveal the

generating process of linguistic phenomena in the interaction.

2. To identify the strategies Oprah uses in talk show, including turn-allocation techniques, turn-control strategies, how to make adjacency pair expansion and executive strategies of dispreferred organization.

     3.  To discover the methods people understand and hold the world by the daily use of language, because many phenomena in conversations are common but not realized.

    4. To provide some valuable references for domestic talk shows. The success of

 Oprah show stems not only from her unique personality but also from her well

planned language.

      

网学推荐

免费论文

原创论文

浏览:
设为首页 | 加入收藏 | 论文首页 | 论文专题 | 设计下载 | 网学软件 | 论文模板 | 论文资源 | 程序设计 | 关于网学 | 站内搜索 | 网学留言 | 友情链接 | 资料中心
版权所有 电话:013574892963 QQ:3710167 邮箱:Educs@163.com 网学网 [Myeducs.cn] 您电脑的分辨率是 像素
Copyright 2008-2015 Www.myeducs.Cn All Rights Reserved
湘ICP备09003080号