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CQ6123车床数控改造设计(全套图纸+论文)

时间:2009-4-30来源:http://myeducs.cn 作者: 网学

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  CQ6123型车床的经济型数控改造设计

  摘  要

  数控是可编程自动技术的一种形式,通过数字、字母和其他符号来控制加工设备。数字、字母和符号用适当的格式编码为一个特定工件定义指令程序。当工件改变时,指令程序就改变。这种改变程序的能力使数控适用于中、小批量生产,写一段新程序远比对加工设备作大的改动容易的多。

  机械具有的加工精度、工件表面粗糙度等取决于电气驱动部件和机械传动部件的优良设计。机械传动部件的设计好坏对进给伺服系统的性能影响很大。所以,对CQ6123普通车床作如下改装:

  (1)主传动系统不变。

  (2)进给系统采用开环控制。拆除原进给箱和溜板箱内的传动件、操纵件和其它零部件,只保留箱体。横向、纵向进给采用滚珠丝杠传动。步进电机驱动丝杠,螺母固定在溜板箱上,带动纵拖板和刀架移动,实现进给运动。

  (3)刀架采用微机控制,能自动转位。

  关键词:伺服系统;微机;加工精度

  The design of CQ6123 lathe numerical

  control innovation

  Specialized: Machine design manufacture and Automation

  Author: lijiasheng    The instructs teacher: Jizhao Liu (professor)

  ABSTRACT

  Numerical control is a form of programmable automation in which the processing equipment is controlled by means of numbers, letters, and other symbols. The numbers, letters, and symbols are coded in an appropriate format to define a program of instructions for a particular workpart or job. When the job changes, the program of instructions is changed. The capability to change the program is what makes N/C suitable for low-and medium-volume production. It is much easier to write programs than to make major alterations of the processing equipment.

  The accuracy and surface roughness of workpiece processed by the machine tool, is greatly dependent on the design of electic equipment and components for driving. The design of components impacts on the servo system. So we refit   CQ6123 as follows:

  (1)The headstock remains.

  (2The feed system uses the open-loop system. Remove the components for driving and controlling and others in the original feed box and apron, except the box. The leadscrew with balls is used for transverse and longitudinal transmission. leadscrew is driven by electric stepping motors. The nut is located on the apron. With the carriage and the knife rest moving, feed comes true.

  (3)The knife rest is controlled to move by MCU (Micro Controller Unit).

  Keywords: he servo system;MCU;The accuracy of workpiece processed by the machine tool

  目  录

  第1章  数控系统总体设计方案····························································· 6

  1.1 总体方案的确定······································································································ 6

  1.1.1 系统的运动方式与伺服系统的选择································································ 6

  1.1.2 计算机系统········································································································ 6

  1.1.3 机械传动方式···································································································· 6

  1.2 系统运动方式的确定······························································································ 6

  1.3 伺服系统的选择······································································································ 6

  1.4 执行机构传动方式的确定······················································································ 7

  1.5 计算机的选择………………………………………………………………………7

  1.6 绘制总体方案框图…………………………………………………………………7

  第2章  机械部分设计及计算………………………………………………………8

  2.1选择脉冲当量……………………………………………………………………….8

  2.2计算切削力………………………………………………………………………….8

  2.2.1 纵车外圆………………………………………………………………………8

  2.2.2横切端面……………………………………………………………………….8

  2.3 纵向滚珠丝杠螺母副的计算和选型………………………………………………9

  2.3.1 计算进给牵引力………………………………………………………………9

  2.3.2 计算最大动载荷………………………………………………………………9

  2.3.3 计算最大静载荷………………………………………………………………10

  2.3.4 选择滚珠丝杠螺母副…………………………………………………………10

  2.3.5 传动效率的计算………………………………………………………………10

  2.3.6 刚度验算……………………………………………………………………..11

  2.3.7 稳定性校核……………………………………………………………………12

  2.4 横向滚珠丝杠螺母副计算及选型…………………………………………………12

  2.4.1 计算进给牵引力………………………………………………………………12

  2.4.2 计算最大动载荷………………………………………………………………13

  2.4.3 计算最大静载荷………………………………………………………………13

  2.4.4 选择滚珠丝杠螺母副…………………………………………………………13

  2.4.5 传动效率计算…………………………………………………………………13

  2.4.6 刚度验算…………………………………………………………………………………14

  2.4.7 稳定性校核………………………………………………………………….16

  2.5 纵向及横向滚珠丝杠副几何参数…………………………………………………16

  2.6 齿轮传动比计算……………………………………………………………………17

  2.6.1 纵向进给齿轮箱传动比计算……………………………………………….17

  2.6.2 横向进给齿轮箱传动比计算……………………………………………….18

  2.7 纵向步进电机的计算和选型………………………………………………………18

  2.7.1 初选步进电机……………………………………………………………….18

  2.7.2校核步进电机转矩………………………………………………………….20

  2.8 横向步进电机的计算和选型………………………………………………………24

  2.8.1 初选步进电机……………………………………………………………….24

  2.8.2校核步进电机转矩………………………………………………………….24

  第3章  进给伺服系统机械部分结构设计………………………………………28

  第4章  硬件部分电路的设计………………………………………………………30

  4.1 控制系统的功能………………………………………………………………….30

  4.2 CPU、存储器及I/O接口…………………………………………………………30

  4.3 CPU、存储器及I/O接口芯片地址分配…………………………………………31

  第5章  微机控制系统的软件设计……………………………………………….31

  5.1 监控程序………………………………………………………………………….31

  5.2 直线圆弧插补程序设计………………………………………………………….32

  5.2.1 直线插补程序设计…………………………………………………………32

  5.2.2 圆弧插补程序的设计………………………………………………………33

  5.2.3升降速处理软件……………………………………………………………33

  5.2.4步进电机的软件控制及转程序设计………………………………………34

  第6章    数控机床加工程序编制……………………………………………….36

  结论········································································································ 38

  参考文献································································································· 39

  致谢········································································································ 40

  附录········································································································ 41

  第1章  数控系统总体设计方案

  1.1  总体方案的确定

  1.1.1  系统的运动方式与伺服系统的选择

  由于改造后的经济型数控车床应具有定位、直线插补、顺圆和逆圆插补、暂停、循环加工、公英制螺纹加工等功能,故应选择连续控制系统。考虑到属于经济型数控机床加工精度要求不高,为了简化结构、降低成本,采用步进电机开环控制系统。

  1.1.2  计算机系统

  根据机床要求,采用8位微机。由于MCS—51系列单片机具有集成度高,可靠性好、功能强、速度快、抗干扰能力强、性能价格比高等特点,决定采用MCS—51系列的8031单片机扩展系统。

  控制系统由微机部分、键盘及显示器、I/O接口及光隔离电路、步进电机功率放大电路等组成。系统的加工程序和控制命令通过键盘操作实现,显示器采用数码管显示加工数据及机床状态等信息。

  1.1.3  机械传动方式

  为实现机床所要求的分辨率,采用步进电机经齿轮减速再传动丝杠。为了保证一定的传动精度跟平稳性,尽量减少摩擦力。选用滚珠丝杠螺母副。同时,为了提高传动刚度和消除间隙,采用有预加负荷的结构。齿轮传动也要采用消除齿侧间隙的结构。

  1.2 系统运动方式的确定

  数控系统运动方式可分为点位控制系统、点位/直线系统和连续控制系统。

  1.3 伺服系统的选择

  伺服系统可分为开环控制系统、半闭环控制和闭环控制系统。

  开环控制系统中,没有反馈电路,不带检测装置,指令信号是单方向送的。指令发出后,不再反馈回来,故称开环控制。开环系统主要由步进电机驱动。

  闭环控制系统具有装在机床移动部件上的检测反馈元件,用来检测实际位移量,能补偿系统的误差,因而伺服控制精度高。闭环系统多采用直流伺服电机或位流伺服电机驱动。

  半闭环控制系统与闭环系统不同,不直接检测工作台的位移量,而是用检测元件出驱动轴的转角,再间接推算出工作台实际的位移量,也有反馈回路,其性能介于开环系统和闭环系统之间。

  1.4 执行机构传动方式的确定

  为确保数控系统的传动精度和工作平稳性,在设计机械传动装置时,通常提出低摩檫、低惯量、高刚度、无间隙、高谐振以及有适宜尼比的要求。在设计中应考虑以下几点:

  ① 尽量采用低摩擦的传动和导向元件。如采用滚珠丝杠螺母传动副、滚动导轨、贴塑导轨等。

  ② 尽量消除传动间隙。例如采用消隙齿轮等。

  ③ 提高系统刚度,缩短传动链可以提高系统的传动刚度,减小传动链误差。可采用预紧的方法提高系统刚度。例如采用预加负载导轨和滚珠丝杠副等

  1.5 计算机的选择

  微机数控系统由CPU、存储器扩展电路、I/O接口电路、伺服电机驱动电路、检测电路等组成。


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